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清华大学学报(自然科学版)  2016, Vol. 56 Issue (3): 334-340    DOI: 10.16511/j.cnki.qhdxxb.2016.21.027
  物理与工程物理 本期目录 | 过刊浏览 | 高级检索 |
应急疏散中社会关系网络与“领导-追随”行为变化
李丽华1,2, 马亚萍1, 丁宁3, 张辉1, 马晔风1
1. 清华大学工程物理系, 公共安全研究院, 北京 100084;
2. 中国人民公安大学反恐怖学院, 北京 100038;
3. 中国人民公安大学侦查学院, 北京 100038
Changes in social relation networks and leader-follower behavior in emergency evacuations
LI Lihua1,2, MA Yaping1, DING Ning3, ZHANG Hui1, MA Yefeng1
1. Institute of Public Safety Research, Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China;
2. Counter-Terrorism College, People's Public Security University of China, Beijing 100038, China;
3. Criminal Investigation College, People's Public Security University of China, Beijing 100038, China
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摘要 群体动力学理论提出社会关系是影响群体行为的一个重要因素。为了研究社会关系在紧急状态下的特点和变化情况, 研究应急状态下的"领导-追随"行为, 设计并开展了6组高层建筑应急疏散演练实验。实验由包括情侣、舍友和同学关系的30名疏散者参与, 使用问卷调查与社会网络分析方法, 得到常态和紧急状态下的实验者群体的社会关系网络。对问卷、视频数据和社会关系网络图的分析表明, 紧急状态下的社会关系网络受常态中社会关系网络的影响, 但在疏散者的中心度、团体的凝聚性、疏散子群等方面又有着明显的变化。同时, 通过定义疏散者的被信任程度, 提取了常态和紧急疏散状态下的领导与追随者, 结果表明紧急状态下的领导者更可能在常态中的意见领袖和疏散中速度较快的人中间产生。
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李丽华
马亚萍
丁宁
张辉
马晔风
关键词 社会关系应急疏散演练领导-追随行为    
Abstract:Group dynamics theory shows that social relationships are an important factor influencing group behavior. The characteristics and changes in social relationships during emergencies were studied in experiments modeling 6 high-rise building emergency evacuations. The evacuees are all from a graduate class with 30 students where are some pre-existing social relations such as friends, girl and boy friends, and roommates. Social network analyses, questionnaires and video data showed that the leader-follower behavior during emergencies may be influenced by the normal social relationships, but that the center of the evacuee group, the group cohesion, and subgroups showed obvious changes. A mutual believed degree (MBD) was defined to identify the opinion leaders in normal situations and in emergencies which shows that the potential leaders in emergencies are most likely from the normal opinion leaders and from the men who run faster in evacuations.
Key wordssocial relation    emergency evacuation experiments    leader and follower behavior
收稿日期: 2015-10-12      出版日期: 2016-04-01
ZTFLH:  X913.4  
  TU18  
  TP27  
通讯作者: 张辉,教授,E-mail:zhhui@tsinghua.edu.cn     E-mail: zhhui@tsinghua.edu.cn
引用本文:   
李丽华, 马亚萍, 丁宁, 张辉, 马晔风. 应急疏散中社会关系网络与“领导-追随”行为变化[J]. 清华大学学报(自然科学版), 2016, 56(3): 334-340.
LI Lihua, MA Yaping, DING Ning, ZHANG Hui, MA Yefeng. Changes in social relation networks and leader-follower behavior in emergency evacuations. Journal of Tsinghua University(Science and Technology), 2016, 56(3): 334-340.
链接本文:  
http://jst.tsinghuajournals.com/CN/10.16511/j.cnki.qhdxxb.2016.21.027  或          http://jst.tsinghuajournals.com/CN/Y2016/V56/I3/334
  图1 刘卿楼平面图
  表1 疏散实验1—6的具体方案
  图2 应急疏散实验及问卷先后顺序
  表2 按照标准进行分组的组合
  表3 随机分组的组合
  图3 基于实验1的常态中群体的社会关系
  图4 基于实验1的紧急疏散中的社会关系
  图5 基于实验2的常态中群体的社会关系
  图6 基于实验2的紧急状态下群体的社会关系
  表4 该社会网络在常态与紧急状态下的中心中间度
  表5 疏散者的受欢迎分数
  表6 3次试验中速度最快人员标号
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