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清华大学学报(自然科学版)  2018, Vol. 58 Issue (1): 35-42    DOI: 10.16511/j.cnki.qhdxxb.2018.22.006
  汽车工程 本期目录 | 过刊浏览 | 高级检索 |
锥形节流阀的三维流-固耦合非稳态动力学特性仿真分析
吕振华, 李明
清华大学 汽车工程系, 北京 100084
Simulations of the unsteady fluid-structure coupling characteristics of a conical orifice valve
LÜ Zhenhua, LI Ming
Department of Automotive Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
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摘要 针对特种重型车辆用液阻减振装置的一种锥形节流阀的动态工作过程,建立了该阀较精细的三维流-固耦合有限元仿真分析模型,利用直接耦合计算方法求解入口瞬态流速激励下锥阀的耦合动力学响应;通过对锥阀在多种弹性压紧力特性、结构设计状态和多种入口流速激励工况下的流体压强差及速度分布、阀门开度及阀芯受力等动态响应的细致量化分析,解释了锥阀流-固耦合自激振动现象的机理:当弹簧预紧力较大而入口流速较小时,锥阀在开启过程中必然出现阀门开度高频波动、阀芯回弹接触冲击等流-固耦合自激振动现象;取消弹簧预紧力,即可有效地抑制阀门开启过程的非稳态自激振动;入口流速幅值较大时,阀门开启波动过程缩短。这些认识对于解决许多流体阀系存在的流-固耦合自激振动问题具有重要意义。
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关键词 三维流-固耦合动力学自激振动有限元仿真直接耦合计算方法锥形节流阀液阻减振器    
Abstract:The dynamics of a conical orifice valve in a heavy-duty vehicle damper were analyzed using 3-D fluid-structure coupling finite element models solved using the direct coupling computational method. The results show the internal 3-D transient fluid pressure and velocity distributions for transient inlet flow rates and the unsteady high-frequency fluctuations of the valve opening and the forces on the valve. The dynamic responses are given for various compression spring characteristics, valve structure parameters and inlet flow rates to understand the fluid-structure coupling self-excited vibrations of the valve. The results show that heavily preloaded valve springs and small inlet flow rates lead to high-frequency fluctuations of the valve opening and collisions of the core onto the seat. In addition, a zero preload of the valve spring eliminates the fluid-structure coupling vibrations and large inlet flow rates reduce the unsteady opening fluctuations. These conclusions are important for understanding fluid-structure coupling self-excited vibration problems in valves.
Key words3-D fluid-structure coupling dynamics    self-exited vibration    finite-element simulation    direct coupling numerical method    conical orifice valve    hydraulic damper
收稿日期: 2017-03-24      出版日期: 2018-01-15
ZTFLH:  TH113.1  
  O323  
引用本文:   
吕振华, 李明. 锥形节流阀的三维流-固耦合非稳态动力学特性仿真分析[J]. 清华大学学报(自然科学版), 2018, 58(1): 35-42.
LÜ Zhenhua, LI Ming. Simulations of the unsteady fluid-structure coupling characteristics of a conical orifice valve. Journal of Tsinghua University(Science and Technology), 2018, 58(1): 35-42.
链接本文:  
http://jst.tsinghuajournals.com/CN/10.16511/j.cnki.qhdxxb.2018.22.006  或          http://jst.tsinghuajournals.com/CN/Y2018/V58/I1/35
  图1 锥阀机构示意图
  图2 锥阀流 固耦合有限元模型及其边界条件设置
  表1 材料的力学参数
  图3 入口流速 时间历程
  图4 (网络版彩图)锥阀在典型时刻的压强与速度分布
  图5 锥阀动力学响应时间历程
  图6 锥阀阀芯受力分析
  图7 弹簧压紧力特性参数对锥阀动力学特性的影响
  表2 具有不同弹簧压紧力特性参数的模型及响应特征
  表3 不同入口流速幅值工况下 M0模型的响应特征
  表4 锥阀结构参数影响分析的模型特征及分析结果
  图8 入口流速幅值对锥阀动力学特性的影响
  图9 锥阀结构参数对其动力学响应特性的影响分析
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