Abstract：The loaded stresses in the tooth flank of spiral bevel and hypoid gears were optimized without a trial-and-error procedure in a multi-objective optimization model. The multi-objective optimization model was developed considering the maximum contact pressure, load transmission error, load contact pattern and the maximum bending stress. A semi-analytical loaded tooth contact analysis model for the root bending stress was developed to calculate the objectives and constraints. Kriging surrogate models of the objectives and constraints together with a multi-objective genetic algorithm were used to solve the optimization model. The model was then used to optimize a spiral bevel gear pair for a drive axle. The loaded contact pattern was completely in the ideal zone with the maximum contact pressure decreased by 11.7%, the loaded transmission error decreased by 27.9% and the maximum bending stresses in the wheel and pinion decreased by 2.0% and 12.6%. The optimal design was installed in a drive axle for loaded contact tests that showed that the actual loaded contact pattern coincided well with the predicted loaded contact pattern, which verified the accuracy of the optimization approach.
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