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清华大学学报(自然科学版)  2019, Vol. 59 Issue (4): 314-325    DOI: 10.16511/j.cnki.qhdxxb.2019.21.004
  水利水电工程 本期目录 | 过刊浏览 | 高级检索 |
中国地下工程事故成因及应对策略
魏雪斐, 段云岭, 乔楠, 冯金铭
清华大学 水沙科学与水利水电工程国家重点实验室, 北京 100084
Causes and countermeasures of accidents related to underground construction in China
WEI Xuefei, DUAN Yunling, QIAO Nan, FENG Jinming
State Key Laboratory of Hydroscience and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
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摘要 中国地下工程设计建设中,新奥法使用占很大比重,其核心要点是: 1)减少应力扰动;2)及时施加柔性支护;3)受力圈封闭;4)监控量测。Barton总结出岩体质量指标Q值与洞室开挖跨度和支护类型之间的关系,与中国地下工程建设规范相近。该文统计了50起中国采用新奥法的地下工程塌方事故,发现在V级围岩中采用强支护发生事故的比例极高,而强支护方式已不属于新奥法核心理念,可见人们对新奥法的认识和理解还存在偏差。事故原因主要是对均质岩体最优断面及支护型式认识不足,没有采取破碎带局部补强方式让围岩形成环向压缩稳定变形,渗漏封堵没有以补强为根本,支护时机选择不到位,对掌子面前方岩体预测手段和设备不够完善等。最后提出应尽量避免在V级围岩中开挖洞室,遇到断层破碎带要在其上注浆提高其强度,尽快封闭断面形成围岩主动承载体系等措施。
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魏雪斐
段云岭
乔楠
冯金铭
关键词 新奥法隧道塌方注浆岩体补强    
Abstract:The Austrian tunneling method (NATM) is being used to construct underground structures in China. The methods main points are to 1) reduce the stresses, 2) provide appropriate flexible supports, 3) seal the stress sphere and 4) provide monitoring and measurements. Barton summarized the relationship between the rock mass quality index, Q, and the cavern excavation span and support type. Chinese construction specifications for underground excavations are similar; however, there have been 50 collapses of underground projects using the NATM method in China with this study indicating that many of the accidents were using strong supports in V-class wall rock even though such strong supports are not recommended NATM core supports. This indicates that designers do not fully understand NATM including a lack of knowledge of the optimal section and support types for the intact rock type, failure to use local reinforcement for fractured zones to form stable circumferential deformation of the wall rock, and failure to use reinforcements to block leaks as well as improper selection of support installations, inaccurate design predictions, and inappropriate equipment for the working face rock. The suggested countermeasures include avoiding excavating caverns in V-class wall rock, quickly grouting fractured zones to improve the rock mass strength in fractured zones, and sealing sections as quickly as possible.
Key wordsnew Austrian tunneling method    tunnel    collapse    grouting    rock mass reinforcement
收稿日期: 2018-10-24      出版日期: 2019-04-09
通讯作者: 段云岭,教授,yduan@tsinghua.edu.cn     E-mail: yduan@tsinghua.edu.cn
引用本文:   
魏雪斐, 段云岭, 乔楠, 冯金铭. 中国地下工程事故成因及应对策略[J]. 清华大学学报(自然科学版), 2019, 59(4): 314-325.
WEI Xuefei, DUAN Yunling, QIAO Nan, FENG Jinming. Causes and countermeasures of accidents related to underground construction in China. Journal of Tsinghua University(Science and Technology), 2019, 59(4): 314-325.
链接本文:  
http://jst.tsinghuajournals.com/CN/10.16511/j.cnki.qhdxxb.2019.21.004  或          http://jst.tsinghuajournals.com/CN/Y2019/V59/I4/314
  表1 2016年中国已建地下工程统计表 [2-6]
  表2 隧道塌方事故统计表
  表3 中国隧道典型支护方案表
  表4 岩体分级对照表
  图1 塌方洞室跨度与Q 值关系图
  图2 塌方洞室与Q 系统对应图
  表5 洞室穿过不同地质区段造成塌方占比
  表6 塌方与掌子面位置关系占比
  表7 工程中塌方次占比
  表8 跨度比与事故数统计表
  图3 (网络版彩图)典型断面多点位移计监测数据
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