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清华大学学报(自然科学版)  2022, Vol. 62 Issue (1): 13-20    DOI: 10.16511/j.cnki.qhdxxb.2021.26.010
  专题:防灾减灾 本期目录 | 过刊浏览 | 高级检索 |
超大型油罐火灾分区灭火方案及实验验证
田逢时1,2, 薛冉3, 郑昕1, 康青春2,4
1. 清华大学 工程物理系, 公共安全研究院, 北京城市综合应急科学重点实验室, 北京 100084;
2. 中国人民警察大学, 廊坊 065000;
3. 廊坊师范学院 电子信息工程学院, 廊坊 065000;
4. 常州大学, 常州 213000
Partitioned fire control of very large oil tank fires
TIAN Fengshi1,2, XUE Ran3, ZHENG Xin1, KANG Qingchun2,4
1. Beijing Key Laboratory of City Integrated Emergency Response Science, Institute of Public Safety Research, Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China;
2. China People's Police University, Langfang 065000, China;
3. College of Electronic Information Engineering, Langfang Normal University, Langfang 065000, China;
4. Changzhou University, Changzhou 213000, China
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摘要 现有超大型油罐密封圈初期火灾采用完全填充方式进行灭火,绝大部分泡沫覆盖了未燃烧区域,造成有效供给量不足。为提高灭火效率,节约泡沫用量,该文在不改变现有油罐结构和灭火系统基础上,提出了一种超大型油罐火灾分区灭火方案。为验证方案的有效性,设计搭建了环形油盘装置和小型外浮顶油盘实验装置,对泡沫流动性和分区灭火有效性进行实验研究,并重点对比分析了分区条件下的泡沫有效覆盖时间、泡沫用量、灭火时间等参数,探讨了分区之间预留缝隙对泡沫流动的影响。结果表明:不同区域泡沫溢出量与缝隙宽度直接相关,与油盘的形状、大小等参数无关;在实验范围内,火灾载荷对有效覆盖时间影响较小。从灭火时间来看,分区灭火所用时间比未分区的灭火时间有所缩短。从泡沫用量来看,分区灭火方式的泡沫节约量超过60%。在扑灭3 m直径油罐火灾实验中,实验结论与环状油盘实验得出的结果一致,说明分区灭火优势与油罐大小并无明显关联,分区灭火方案具有推广至超大型油罐的应用前景。
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田逢时
薛冉
郑昕
康青春
关键词 超大型油罐分区灭火火灾安全    
Abstract:Fires in very large oil tanks are suppressed by injecting foam into the annular seal ring around the top until the ring is completely filled with foam. However, most of the foam ends up on the unburned area which does not control the fire and results in insufficient supply to the fire region. This paper presents a partition fire extinguishing plan for very large oil tanks that is more efficient and reduces foam use without changing the existing oil tank structure or the fire control system. The scheme was evaluated using an annular oil pan and a small external floating roof oil pan for experimental research on the foam fluidity and partitioned fire control. The results compare the effective covering time, the amount of foam and the fire control time. The results show that the foam spillover into different regions is directly related to the gap width and is not related to the oil pan shape and size. The results also show that the fire control time is shorter when using partitioned areas rather than the unpartitioned design. The partitioned fire control method then reduces the foam use by more than 60%. Experiments with a 3 m diameter oil tank fire are consistent with the results of the annular oil pan experiment, which shows that the advantages of zonal fire control are not related to the tank size and that the partitioned fire control scheme can be applied to very large oil tanks.
Key wordsvery large oil tanks    partitioned fire control    fire    safety
收稿日期: 2020-12-22      出版日期: 2022-01-14
基金资助:国家重点研发计划项目(2020YFC0833402);警察大学校级科研重点专项课题(ZDZX202005)
通讯作者: 郑昕,副研究员,E-mail:zhengxin@tsinghua.edu.cn;康青春,教授,E-mail:kangqingchun@sina.com     E-mail: zhengxin@tsinghua.edu.cn;kangqingchun@sina.com
引用本文:   
田逢时, 薛冉, 郑昕, 康青春. 超大型油罐火灾分区灭火方案及实验验证[J]. 清华大学学报(自然科学版), 2022, 62(1): 13-20.
TIAN Fengshi, XUE Ran, ZHENG Xin, KANG Qingchun. Partitioned fire control of very large oil tank fires. Journal of Tsinghua University(Science and Technology), 2022, 62(1): 13-20.
链接本文:  
http://jst.tsinghuajournals.com/CN/10.16511/j.cnki.qhdxxb.2021.26.010  或          http://jst.tsinghuajournals.com/CN/Y2022/V62/I1/13
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
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