Experimental study of thermo-physiological responses of exercising subjects in -10 ℃5 ℃ cold environments
CHEN Feiyu1, FU Ming2,3, SHEN Shifei1, LI Yayun2,3, GUO Xian2,3
1. Institute of Public Safety Research, Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China; 2. Hefei Institute for Public Safety Research, Tsinghua University, Hefei 230601, China; 3. Anhui Province Key Laboratory of Human Safety, Hefei 230601, China
Abstract：Human thermo-physiological responses to cold environments need to be accurately known to assess human thermal safety and thermal comfort in cold environments. Existing studies have mainly concentrated on people at low exercise intensity, with little consideration of exercising people. Human subject experiments were conducted in a climate chamber to study the thermo-physiological responses and the factors influencing the responses of people exercising in cold environments. The thermo-physiological parameters, including the skin temperature, core temperature and thermal sensation, were measured from six young men for various ambient temperatures of 5, 0, -5 and -10℃ and two clothing with 2.57 and 1.34 clo. The results show that the mean skin temperature and the local skin temperature are linearly related to the ambient temperature with the slope decreasing with additional thermal clothing insulation. The rate of change of the core temperature is linearly related to the body's heat accumulation rate with the slope increasing with additional thermal insulation. Thermal sensation is affected by the ambient temperature and clothing at low and medium exercise intensities, but is not significantly affected at high intensities. The thermal sensation of the exercising people shows no correlation with physiological temperature. The results lead to suggestions to the choice of clothing for exercising people in cold environments. This research provides reference for assessing the thermal safety, thermal comfort, exercise capability and clothing needs for exercising people.
 国家技术监督局. 低温作业分级:GB/T 14440-1993[S]. 北京:中国标准出版社, 1993. State Bureau of Technical Supervision. Classification of works in cold environment:GB/T 14440-1993[S]. Beijing:Standards Press of China, 1993. (in Chinese)  ZHANG H, HUIZENGA C, ARENS E, et al. Thermal sensation and comfort in transient non-uniform thermal environments[J]. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 2004, 92(6):728-733.  FUDGE J. Exercise in the cold:Preventing and managing hypothermia and frostbite injury[J]. Sports Health:A Multidisciplinary Approach, 2016, 8(2):133-139.  ZLATAR T, COSTA J T, VAZ M, et al. Influence of severe cold thermal environment on core and skin temperatures:A systematic review[J]. Work, 2019, 62(2):337-352.  CAPPAERT T A, STONE J A, CASTELLANI J W, et al. National Athletic Trainers' Association position statement:Environmental cold injuries[J]. Journal of Athletic Training, 2008, 43(6):640-658.  PROCTER E, BRUGGER H, BURTSCHER M. Accidental hypothermia in recreational activities in the mountains:A narrative review[J]. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 2018, 28(12):2464-2472.  HÉBERT-LOSIER K, ZINNER C, PLATT S, et al. Factors that influence the performance of elite sprint cross-country skiers[J]. Sports Medicine, 2017, 47(2):319-342.  GAVHED D C E, HOLMER I. Physiological and subjective responses to thermal transients of exercising subjects dressed in cold-protective clothing[J]. European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology, 1996, 73(6):573-581.  DOUMA M J, AVES T, ALLAN K S, et al. First aid cooling techniques for heat stroke and exertional hyperthermia:A systematic review and meta-analysis[J]. Resuscitation, 2020, 148:173-190.  CASTELLANI J W, EGLIN C M, IKÄHEIMO T M, et al. ACSM expert consensus statement:Injury prevention and exercise performance during cold-weather exercise[J]. Current Sports Medicine Reports, 2021, 20(11):594-607.  GAVHED D C E, HOLMÉR I. Thermal responses at three low ambient temperatures:Validation of the duration limited exposure index[J]. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 1998, 21(6):465-474.  WANG S X, LI Y, TOKURA H, et al. Effect of moisture management on functional performance of cold protective clothing[J]. Textile Research Journal, 2007, 77(12):968-980.  WU J S, HU Z Q, HAN Z X, et al. Human physiological responses of exposure to extremely cold environments[J]. Journal of Thermal Biology, 2021, 98:102933.  GAGGE A P, GONZALEZ R R. Mechanisms of heat exchange:Biophysics and physiology[M]//Handbook of physiology:Environmental physiology. Oxford, UK:Oxford University Press, 2011:45-84.  AINSWORTH B E, HASKELL W L, HERRMANN S D, et al. 2011 Compendium of physical activities:A second update of codes and MET values[J]. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 2011, 43(8):1575-1581.  TANABE S I, KOBAYASHI K, NAKANO J, et al. Evaluation of thermal comfort using combined multi-node thermoregulation (65MN) and radiation models and computational fluid dynamics (CFD)[J]. Energy and Buildings, 2002, 34(6):637-646.  FIALA D, LOMAS K J, STOHRER M. A computer model of human thermoregulation for a wide range of environmental conditions:The passive system[J]. Journal of Applied Physiology, 1999, 87(5):1957-1972.  FANGER P O. Thermal comfort[M]. Copenhagen, Denmark:Danish Technical Press, 1970.  XU X J, RIOUX T P, GONZALEZ J, et al. A digital tool for prevention and management of cold weather injuries:Cold weather ensemble decision aid (CoWEDA)[J]. International Journal of Biometeorology, 2021, 65(8):1415-1426.  TAKAHASHI Y, NOMOTO A, YODA S, et al. Thermoregulation model JOS-3 with new open source code[J]. Energy and Buildings, 2021, 231:110575.  IWATA R, KAWAMURA T, HOSOKAWA Y, et al. Differences between sexes in thermoregulatory responses and exercise time during endurance exercise in a hot environment following pre-cooling with ice slurry ingestion[J]. Journal of Thermal Biology, 2020, 94:102746.  MULLER M D, RYAN E J, BELLAR D M, et al. The influence of interval versus continuous exercise on thermoregulation, torso hemodynamics, and finger dexterity in the cold[J]. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 2010, 109(5):857-867.  NIELSEN R, NIELSEN B. Influence of skin temperature distribution on thermal sensation in a cool environment[J]. European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology, 1984, 53(3):225-230.  GONZÁLEZ-ALONSO J, TELLER C, ANDERSEN S L, et al. Influence of body temperature on the development of fatigue during prolonged exercise in the heat[J]. Journal of Applied Physiology, 1999, 86(3):1032-1039.  杨杰, 翁文国. 基于高温人体热反应模型的生理参数预测[J]. 清华大学学报(自然科学版), 2014, 54(11):1422-1427. YANG J, WENG W G. Prediction of human physiological responses by a thermal response model in hot environments[J]. Journal of Tsinghua University (Science and Technology), 2014, 54(11):1422-1427. (in Chinese)