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清华大学学报(自然科学版)  2023, Vol. 63 Issue (10): 1584-1597    DOI: 10.16511/j.cnki.qhdxxb.2023.22.036
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电气化交通路网的脆弱性分析
王洪苹, 胡燕祝, 庄育锋, 王松
北京邮电大学 现代邮政学院(自动化学院), 北京 100876
Analyzing the vulnerability of electrified transportation road networks
WANG Hongping, HU Yanzhu, ZHANG Yufeng, WANG Song
School of Modern Post(School of Automation), Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876, China
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摘要 分析交通路网的脆弱性一直是应急管理领域中重要的研究课题。然而,随着电动汽车在交通流中的滲透率不断提高,传统的评估路网脆弱性的方法,由于缺乏考虑电动汽车的特征,因此不再能很好适用于多电动汽车场景。对此,该文提出一个双层攻击者-防御者模型来研究电气化交通路网的脆弱性。在模型外层的攻击者通过破坏网络中的关键道路,使系统性能的下降最大化;在模型内层的防御者通过动态地分配混合电动汽车和非电动汽车的交通流,使用户总旅行时间最小化。该文进一步通过对内层问题取对偶以及采用大M法,将原始的双层混合整数线性规划问题转换为一个等价的单层混合整数线性规划问题。将提出的模型应用于美国北卡罗来纳州的部分高速路网,实验结果展示了在评估电气化路网的脆弱性时,把电动汽车考虑在内的必要性,以及攻击资源等级和系统性能下降存在临界点和相变现象。该文提出的模型可以识别出系统中最关键的道路集合,为改善电气化路网的脆弱性提供理论支撑。
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王洪苹
胡燕祝
庄育锋
王松
关键词 脆弱性分析电气化交通路网攻击者-防御者模型动态混合交通流分配    
Abstract:[Objective] The rapid proliferation of electric vehicles (EVs) and the large-scale deployment of charging facilities have considerably increased the electrification of transportation road networks. However, road networks exhibit vulnerability to failure at several critical sections, which in turn may trigger a cascade of failures, ultimately leading to widespread road network disruptions. In the context of mixed electric and nonelectric vehicular flows, such adverse impacts may further spread and cascade due to EV-specific characteristics, such as limited EV range and required charging time. Protective measures for vulnerable road sections of electrified road networks against hazards could mitigate the risk of cascading failures and the further spread of disruptive events. Therefore, assessing the vulnerability of electrified transportation road networks and identifying critical road sections have become paramount. Given that the vulnerability of electrified transportation road networks has been scarcely explored in existing literature, this paper proposes a two-layered attacker-defender model to study the vulnerability of electrified transportation road networks. [Methods] The outer layer model aims to minimize system performance by targeting roads within the system for disruption, i.e., maximizing the total system travel time. The inner layer model serves as a defender, minimizing the total system travel time by dynamically and optimally distributing traffic flows containing both electric and nonelectric vehicles. The inner layer model is formulated based on an enhanced link transmission model, taking into consideration the critical characteristics of the electrified transportation road networks. This two-layered model can describe the temporal and spatial evolution of the mixed electric and nonelectric vehicular flows. Additionally, this paper provides a detailed solution method and theoretical analysis of this model. A mixed-integer quadratic programming problem is obtained by considering the dual of the inner problem and combining the inner problem with the outer problem. This problem is subsequently converted into a mixed-integer linear programming problem using the big M method. [Results] The proposed model is applied to a segment of the highway network in North Carolina, U.S. The experimental results reveal that (1) critical road sections as determined with and without EVs differ considerably. Therefore, it is necessary to incorporate EVs when analyzing the vulnerability of an electrified transportation road network. (2) The set of critical road sections varies depending on the level of attack resources. In particular, the set of critical road sections in the low attack resource level scenarios is not necessarily a subset of the critical road sections in the high attack resource level scenarios. (3) The experimental results confirm the existence of a critical point in the attack resource level. When this critical point is reached, the system performance displays a phase change phenomenon, marked by a notable decline. [Conclusions] The results verify that the proposed model can identify the set of critical road sections in the system and provide theoretical support to improve the vulnerability of the electrified transportation road networks.
Key wordsvulnerability analysis    electrified transportation road networks    attacker-defender model    dynamic mixed traffic flow assignment
收稿日期: 2022-12-15      出版日期: 2023-09-01
基金资助:高动态导航技术北京市重点实验室开放课题资助(S2022236);中央高校基本科研业务费项目(2023RC37)
通讯作者: 胡燕祝,教授,E-mail:yzhu@263.net     E-mail: yzhu@263.net
作者简介: 王洪苹(1992-),女,讲师。
引用本文:   
王洪苹, 胡燕祝, 庄育锋, 王松. 电气化交通路网的脆弱性分析[J]. 清华大学学报(自然科学版), 2023, 63(10): 1584-1597.
WANG Hongping, HU Yanzhu, ZHANG Yufeng, WANG Song. Analyzing the vulnerability of electrified transportation road networks. Journal of Tsinghua University(Science and Technology), 2023, 63(10): 1584-1597.
链接本文:  
http://jst.tsinghuajournals.com/CN/10.16511/j.cnki.qhdxxb.2023.22.036  或          http://jst.tsinghuajournals.com/CN/Y2023/V63/I10/1584
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
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