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清华大学学报(自然科学版)  2023, Vol. 63 Issue (4): 603-611    DOI: 10.16511/j.cnki.qhdxxb.2023.25.037
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多组分重油单液滴着火与燃烧特性
陈健, 张扬, 张海
清华大学 能源与动力工程系, 热科学与动力工程教育部重点实验室, 北京 100084
Single droplet ignition and combustion characteristics of multi-component heavy oil
CHEN Jian, ZHANG Yang, ZHANG Hai
Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Energy and Power Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
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摘要 该文研究了3种多组分重油单液滴在高温环境下的着火、微爆和燃尽特性。通过管式炉实验,记录了单液滴重油在着火和燃烧过程中的特征时间和特征直径的变化规律。实验发现重油的着火延迟时间和燃尽时间与组分、温度、初始直径密切相关。由于重油液滴的组分复杂且沸点不同,因此在燃烧过程中发生的膨胀对其燃烧特性有重要影响。热重质谱(thermogravimetric-mass spectrometry,TG-MS)分析的结果可以较好地解释膨胀的频率和幅度。实验结果表明: 3种样品的膨胀次数与TG-MS结果中热解峰的数量一致,膨胀幅度与热解峰的高度呈正相关;多组分重油燃烧过程发生了明显的微爆现象。该文定义了液滴燃烧过程中的微爆强度,并发现其与重质组分占比、液滴初始直径和温度呈正相关关系。
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陈健
张扬
张海
关键词 燃料与燃烧重油液滴燃烧微爆    
Abstract:[Objective] Heavy oil is one of the heavy end products of the petroleum refining process and has high energy density, low price, and poor ignition and combustion performance. There is an increasing demand for heavy oil and substantial variation in the composition of heavy oil provided by different suppliers. Understanding the combustion characteristics of heavy oil, especially those related to ignition and burnout, is critical to safely use and effectively tune and control the combustion of heavy oil. The development of heavy oil burners can yield significant insights into this endeavor. The combustion of heavy oil in the furnace is essentially the combustion of a large number of liquid droplets. The study of the ignition and b[KG-*4]urnout characteristics of a single liquid droplet can lead to a better understanding of the combustion of heavy oil. [Methods] The composition of multi-component heavy oil is analyzed, and the single drop experiment is carried out. Considering the need to measure the temperature at the droplet center and take pictures of the static droplet during the experiment, the hanging drop method is chosen for studying single droplets of three multi-component heavy oils at different temperatures. Also, experiments are performed in tubular furnaces with different initial diameters to understand the correlation between the ignition and combustion characteristics of a heavy oil droplet and its composition, ambient temperature, and initial diameter. The droplet ignition delay is defined as the duration between the entrance of the droplet into the tubular furnace and its ignition. All experiments are conducted under visible light to enable observation of the variation in the ignition delay of liquid droplets and the time taken for the burn-out of their volatile components. Then the experiment is repeated under a strong backlight to better observe the change in the droplet radius during combustion. The obtained images are binarized by the MATLAB program, and the 256 brightness levels of the original image are converted into pure black or pure white, respectively, through threshold adjustment. The pure black part denotes liquid droplets and thermocouples. The pixel count of the black regions is determined, the region of interest (ROI) is set manually to exclude the thermocouple wire, and the actual area of the droplet is calculated. The characteristic radius is defined as that corresponding to the equivalent circle area equal to that of the droplet image.[Results] The ignition delay and the burnout time of a heavy oil droplet were found to decrease with increasing temperature and increase with increasing initial diameter. However, given that these variations were not directly related to the proportion of the heavy components of the droplet, it was unreasonable to try to correlate the proportion of the heavy component with the combustion performance of the droplet. Due to the complex mix of components with different boiling points, the expansion behavior of the heavy oil droplets as a function of time during combustion strongly influences their combustion characteristics. The thermogravimetric-mass spectrometry (TG-MS) characterization could explain the frequency and amplitude of expansion. The expansion times of the three samples were consistent with the number of pyrolysis peaks in TG-MS results, and the expansion amplitude was positively correlated with the height of the pyrolysis peaks. [Conclusions] The multi-component heavy oil droplets are found to undergo micro-explosions during combustion due to the complexity of their composition and large differences in the volatilities of the individual components. The intensity of micro-explosion during droplet combustion is defined. It is found to be positively correlated with the proportion of heavy components, the initial diameter of the droplets, and the ambient temperature.
Key wordsfuel and combustion    heavy oil    droplet combustion    microburst
收稿日期: 2023-02-15      出版日期: 2023-04-22
基金资助:国家自然科学基金项目(52176116)
通讯作者: 张扬,副教授,E-mail:yang-zhang@tsinghua.edu.cn     E-mail: yang-zhang@tsinghua.edu.cn
作者简介: 陈健(1997-),男,硕士研究生。
引用本文:   
陈健, 张扬, 张海. 多组分重油单液滴着火与燃烧特性[J]. 清华大学学报(自然科学版), 2023, 63(4): 603-611.
CHEN Jian, ZHANG Yang, ZHANG Hai. Single droplet ignition and combustion characteristics of multi-component heavy oil. Journal of Tsinghua University(Science and Technology), 2023, 63(4): 603-611.
链接本文:  
http://jst.tsinghuajournals.com/CN/10.16511/j.cnki.qhdxxb.2023.25.037  或          http://jst.tsinghuajournals.com/CN/Y2023/V63/I4/603
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
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