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清华大学学报(自然科学版)  2023, Vol. 63 Issue (7): 1078-1086    DOI: 10.16511/j.cnki.qhdxxb.2023.26.013
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基于目标检测的混凝土坝裂缝实时检测方法
黄贲, 康飞, 唐玉
大连理工大学 水利工程学院, 大连 116023
A real-time detection method for concrete dam cracks based on an object detection algorithm
HUANG Ben, KANG Fei, TANG Yu
School of Hydraulic Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023, China
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摘要 裂缝是大坝最常见的损伤之一,可反映大坝的受力状态和安全性。针对混凝土坝裂缝传统检测算法速度慢、精度低、泛化性能不足等问题,该文基于目标检测神经网络YOLOX (you only look once x)深度学习目标检测算法,提出一种混凝土坝表观裂缝实时检测方法(YOLOX-dam crack detection,YOLOX-DCD)。该方法对YOLOX目标检测神经网络进行改进,首先在网络结构中加入卷积注意力机制,使网络更关注裂缝特征,提高检测效果;其次引入完全交并比(complete intersection over union,CIoU)作为目标定位损失函数;最后在自制的混凝土坝裂缝数据集上进行实验评估,并与现有的多种目标检测神经网络进行对比。结果表明:该文所提方法具有速度快、精度高、参数少的特点,且明显优于经典目标检测算法。因此,该文所提方法能满足混凝土坝裂缝检测高效、精确、实时的要求,可为混凝土坝裂缝检测提供技术支持。
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黄贲
康飞
唐玉
关键词 混凝土坝裂缝检测深度学习目标检测YOLOX神经网络注意力机制    
Abstract:As a major part of water conservancy infrastructure, dams play an important role in economic construction and social development. Cracks are one of the most common types of damage to dams, destroying the overall structure and affecting the durability, strength, and stability of the structure. Therefore, regular and systematic crack detection of concrete dams is of great importance to ensure their safe and stable operation. However, the traditional concrete dam crack detection technology suffers from slow speed, low precision, and insufficient generalization performance, bringing difficulty in meeting the requirements of concrete dam crack detection. Therefore, the objective of this study is to develop an efficient, accurate, and real-time concrete dam crack detection technology. Existing crack detection methods based on semantic segmentation algorithms run slowly and detect concrete cracks in real time with difficulty. In addition, the dam operation environment is harsh, resulting in complex image backgrounds and inconspicuous crack image features, increasing the difficulty of identification. This study proposes a real-time detection method for concrete dam cracks based on deep learning object detection method you only look once x (YOLOX), called YOLOX-dam crack detection (YOLOX-DCD), to address the problems of slow speed, low accuracy, and insufficient generalization of the traditional detection techniques for concrete dam cracks. This method improves the performance of YOLOX to detect concrete dam cracks. First, a lightweight convolutional block attention module (CBAM) is added to the network structure, which integrates the spatial attention mechanism with the channel attention mechanism. The CBAM makes the network pay more attention to crack features and improves detection performance. Second, a complete intersection over union (CIoU) is introduced to replace IoU as the loss function. The CIoU incorporates the normalized distance between the predicted box and the target box and summarizes three geometric factors in bounding box regression, i.e., overlap area, central point distance, and aspect ratio, thereby improving the convergence speed and detection performance of the algorithm. The experimental evaluation was conducted on a self-made concrete dam crack dataset. Ablation experiments were performed on each improved module, and the results showed that the improved method proposed in this paper effectively improved the detection accuracy of the model and maintained a high detection speed. The proposed model had an AP0.5 on the test set of 90.84% and an F1 of 87.74%, which were higher than those of various existing object detection methods. The FPS of the model was 65, and the detection speed was faster. The model was small, with a size of 25.67 MB, and could be deployed on a mobile terminal for real-time crack detection. In this study, a CBAM and the CIoU loss function are added to the YOLOX network, which make the network pay more attention to crack characteristics and improves the detection performance for concrete dam cracks. Experiments reveal that the method in this paper has fast speed, high precision, and few parameters and is obviously better than the classical object detection algorithms. Therefore, the proposed method meets the requirements of efficient, accurate, and real-time crack detection of concrete dams and is promising for providing a technical means for crack detection.
Key wordsconcrete dam    crack detection    deep learning    object detection    YOLOX neural network    attention mechanism
收稿日期: 2022-10-31      出版日期: 2023-06-27
基金资助:国家重点研发计划项目(2022YFB4703404);国家自然科学基金面上项目(51779035,52079022,51979027)
通讯作者: 康飞,教授,E-mail:kangfei@dlut.edu.cn     E-mail: kangfei@dlut.edu.cn
作者简介: 黄贲(1996—),男,博士研究生。
引用本文:   
黄贲, 康飞, 唐玉. 基于目标检测的混凝土坝裂缝实时检测方法[J]. 清华大学学报(自然科学版), 2023, 63(7): 1078-1086.
HUANG Ben, KANG Fei, TANG Yu. A real-time detection method for concrete dam cracks based on an object detection algorithm. Journal of Tsinghua University(Science and Technology), 2023, 63(7): 1078-1086.
链接本文:  
http://jst.tsinghuajournals.com/CN/10.16511/j.cnki.qhdxxb.2023.26.013  或          http://jst.tsinghuajournals.com/CN/Y2023/V63/I7/1078
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
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