A halophilic cell strain was isolated that efficiently degrades high molecular weight-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (HMW-PAHs) contamination in saline environments. This strain, which can degrade phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene and benzanthracene, was isolated from oil-polluted soil with pyrene as the sole carbon and energy source in a mineral salt medium (MSM) of 5% salinity. The strain was identified as Thalassospira based on morphological observations and an 16SrRNA sequence and named Thalassospira sp. strain TSL5-2. After 25 days' cultivation in 5% salinity culture solution, strain TSL5-2 degraded phenanthrene by 100%, pyrene by 53.5%, fluoranthene by 60% (initial concentration: 20mg/L) and benzanthracene by 18.1% (initial concentration: 8mg/L), but could not degrade benzopyrene. TSL5-2 had a wide salinity tolerance range (0.5%-19.5%), with an optimal salinity of 5%. Adding yeast powder and peptone (5mg/L) to the MSM both improved the degradation of phenanthrene by TSL5-2, with degradation rates of 60.1% with yeast and 82.1% with peptone at day 5, both higher than the control group (46.1%). Yeast powder did not effectively improve the degradation of pyrene and benzopyrene. Peptone inhibited the degradation of pyrene, while accelerating benzopyrene degradation, with a pyrene degradation rate of 17.5% and a benzopyrene (5mg/L) degradation rate of 38.2% at 25 days.
Dastgheib S M M, Amoozegar M A, Khajeh K, et al. Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by a halophilic microbial consortium[J]. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 2012, 95(3): 789-798.
ZHAO Baisuo, WANG Hui, MAO Xinwei, et al.Biodegradation of phenanthrene by a halophilic bacterial consortium under aerobic conditions[J]. Current Microbiology, 2009, 58(3): 205-210.
刘海滨, 王翠苹, 张志远, 等. 苯并[a]芘高效降解菌筛选及其降解特性研究[J]. 环境科学, 2011(09): 2696-2702. LIU Haibin, WANG Cuipin, ZHANG Zhiyuan, et al.Isolation ofhighly-effective benzo [a]pyrene degrading strain and its degradation capacity[J]. Environmental Science, 2011(09): 2696-2702.(in Chinese)
Kumar M, Leo'n V, Materano A D S, et al. A halotolerant and thermotolerant Bacillus sp. degrades hydrocarbons and produces tensio-active emulsifying agent[J]. World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology, 2007, 23(2): 211-220.
Geiselbrecht A D, Hedlund B P, Tichi M A, et al.Isolation of marine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading Cycloclasticus strains from the Gulf of Mexico and comparison of their PAH degradation ability with that of puget sound Cycloclasticus strains[J]. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 1998, 64(12): 4703-4710.
ZHAO Baisuo, WANG Hui, LI Ruirui, et al.Thalassospira xianhensis sp nov., a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading marine bacterium[J]. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, 2010, 60: 1125-1129.
SHAO Zongze, CUI Zhisong, DONG Chunming, et al.Analysis of a PAH-degrading bacterial population in subsurface sediments on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge[J]. Deep-Sea Research Part I-Oceanographic Research Papers, 2010, 57(5): 724-730.
Kodama Y, Stiknowati L I, Ueki A, et al.Thalassospira tepidiphila sp nov., a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacterium isolated from seawater[J]. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, 2008, 58: 711-715.
Lo'pez L A, Pujalte M J, Benlloch S, et al.Thalassospira lucentensis gen. nov., sp nov., a new marine member of the alpha-Proteobacteria[J]. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, 2002, 52: 1277-1283.
CUI Zhisong, LAI Qiliang, DONG Chunming, et al.Biodiversity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria from deep sea sediments of the Middle Atlantic Ridge[J]. Environmental Microbiology, 2008, 10(8): 2138-2149.
LIU Zhanfei, LIU Jiqing. Evaluating bacterial community structures in oil collected from the sea surface and sediment in the northern Gulf of Mexico after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill[J]. Microbiology Open, 2013, 2(3): 492-504.
Widdel f, Pfennig N. Studies on dissimilatory sulfate-reducing bacteria that decompose fatty-acids. 1. isolation of new sulfate-reducing bacteria enriched with acetate from saline environments-description of desulfobacter-postgatei gen-nov, sp-nov[J]. Archives of Microbiology, 1981, 129(5): 395-400.
Janssen P H, Schuhmann A, Morschel E. Novel anaerobic ultramicrobacteria belonging to the Verrucomicrobiales lineage of bacterial descent isolated by dilution culture from anoxic rice paddy soil[J]. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 1997, 63(4): 1382-1388.
董培艳. 北极王湾海域浮游细菌及玫瑰杆菌支系丰度及多样性调查 [D]. 厦门: 厦门大学, 2013. DONG Peiyan. Abundance and Diversity of Planktonic Bacteria and Roseobacter Clade in the Arctic Kongsfjorden [D]. Xiamen: Xiamen University, 2013.(in Chinese)
何芬. 嗜盐菌群降解多环芳烃分子机制的基础研究 [D]. 北京: 清华大学, 2012. HE Fen. Primary Study on Mechanism of PAHs Biodegradation by Halophilic Bacteria Consortium [D]. Beijing: Tsinghua University, 2012.(in Chinese)
LEI Anping, HU Zhangli, WONG Yukshan, et al.Removal of fluoranthene and pyrene by different microalgal species[J]. Bioresource Technology, 2007, 98(2): 273-280.
Feng T C, Cui C Z, Dong F, et al.Phenanthrene biodegradation by halophilic Martelella sp. AD-3[J]. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 2012, 113(4): 779-789.
Pugazhendi A, Namsivayam V. Role of nutrients in the utilization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by halotolerant bacterial strain[J]. Journal of Environmental Sciences, 2011, 23(2): 282-287.
Minai T D, Minoui S, Herfatmanesh A. Effect of salinity on biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of heavy crude oil in soil[J]. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 2009, 82(2): 179-184.
刘芳, 梁金松, 孙英, 等. 高分子量多环芳烃降解菌LD29的筛选及降解特性研究[J]. 环境科学, 2011(06): 1799-1804. LIU Fen, LIANG Jinsong, SUN Ying, et al. Isolation and degradation characteristics of a HMW-PAHs-degrading Strain LD29[J]. Environmental Science, 2011(06): 1799-1804.(in Chinese)
Shuttleworth K L, Cerniglia C E. Environmental aspects of pah biodegradation[J]. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 1995, 54(1-3): 291-302.
McGenity T J, Gramain A. Cultivation of halophilic hydrocarbon degraders[J]. Handbook of Hydrocarbon and Lipid Microbiology, 2010: 3847-3854.
Heitkamp M A, Cerniglia C E. Mineralization of polycyclic aromatic-hydrocarbons by a bacterium isolated from sediment below an oil-field[J]. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 1988, 54(6): 1612-1614.