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清华大学学报(自然科学版)  2015, Vol. 55 Issue (7): 803-807,814    
  工程物理 本期目录 | 过刊浏览 | 高级检索 |
基于建筑结构破坏的地震伤亡评估方法及应用
李媛媛, 陈建国, 张小乐, 袁宏永
清华大学 工程物理系, 公共安全研究院, 北京 100084
Structure destruction based earthquake casualty estimates
LI Yuanyuan, CHEN Jianguo, ZHANG Xiaole, YUAN Hongyong
Institute for Public Safety Research, Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
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摘要 震后的人员伤亡评估对启动应急预案和组织开展应急救援工作具有重要指导意义。美国地震评估软件 HAZUS 采用了基于建筑易损性的人员伤亡评估方法, 但该模型主要基于美国加利福尼亚州的建筑结构。为进行以震后应急为目的人员伤亡快速评估, 该文通过假设条件对模型进行简化, 以汶川地震为案例对人员伤亡情况进行了预测, 验证了该方法的有效性和对中国建筑结构的适用性。预测的受伤人员数与实际统计数据接近, 遇难人员较实际人数偏低, 原因是模型严重低估了极震区的遇难人数。预测结果与实际情况基本吻合, 能够反映地震导致人员伤亡的严重程度, 简化的模型更加适用于震后应急响应阶段的人员伤亡快速评估, 具有一定的实用价值。
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李媛媛
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袁宏永
关键词 地震人员伤亡能力谱方法地理信息系统ShakeMapHAZUS    
Abstract:Post-earthquake casualty estimates are of great importance for emergency planning and rescues. The USA earthquake software HAZUS estimates casualties based on building vulnerability, but the model is mainly developed for building structures in California. A simplified rapid casualty assessment model is developed for emergency response and verified against data from the Wenchuan earthquake for Chinese building structures. The estimated number of injuries is close to the actual number, but the estimated number of deaths is lower, because the model seriously underestimates fatalities in the epicenter area. The predicted results are consistent with the actual situation and reflect the severity of the earthquake casualties. The simplified model is suitable for rapid casualty assessments to direct post-earthquake emergency response.
Key wordsearthquake casualty    capacity spectrum method    geographic information system (GIS)    ShakeMap    HAZUS
收稿日期: 2013-05-22      出版日期: 2015-09-18
ZTFLH:  X915.5  
通讯作者: 袁宏永,研究员,E-mail:hy-yuan@tsinghua.edu.cn     E-mail: hy-yuan@tsinghua.edu.cn
引用本文:   
李媛媛, 陈建国, 张小乐, 袁宏永. 基于建筑结构破坏的地震伤亡评估方法及应用[J]. 清华大学学报(自然科学版), 2015, 55(7): 803-807,814.
LI Yuanyuan, CHEN Jianguo, ZHANG Xiaole, YUAN Hongyong. Structure destruction based earthquake casualty estimates. Journal of Tsinghua University(Science and Technology), 2015, 55(7): 803-807,814.
链接本文:  
http://jst.tsinghuajournals.com/CN/  或          http://jst.tsinghuajournals.com/CN/Y2015/V55/I7/803
  图1 中层无筋砌体填充墙的混凝土框架 建筑(C3M)脆弱性曲线
  表1 HAZUS伤情分级[16]
  图2 峰值地面加速度等值线[17]
  图3 汉旺镇建筑受损估算结果
  图4 观鱼镇建筑受损估算结果
  表2 模型估算整体结果与实际统计数据比较  人
  表3 绵竹市模型估算结果与实际统计值的比较  人
  图5 人口死亡比例与建筑完全破坏比例的关系
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