Numerical simulations for optimizing the liquid water transport in the gas diffusion layer and gas channels of a PEMFC
YANG Jiapei1, MA Xiao1, LEI Timan3, LUO Kai H.2,3, SHUAI Shijin1
1. State Key Laboratory of Automotive Safety and Energy, Department of Automotive Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China; 2. Center for Combustion Energy, Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Energy and Power Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China; 3. Department of Mechanical Engineering, University College London, London WC1E 7JE, UK
Abstract：The multiple-relation-time (MRT) lattice Boltzmann method with a high-density-ratio two-phase model was used to simulate liquid water transport in the gas diffusion layer (GDL) and gas channels of a high-current-density fuel cell. The results show the effects of Reynolds number, perforation shapes and locations in the GDL and the angles of the wave-like gas channels on the water transport. The results show that the GDL and the gas channels should be optimized together to improve the water removal rate. In addition, the results show that the water begins running out of the GDL at earlier times as the Reynolds number increases with the times not related to the wave-like gas channel angle or the perforation shape or location. The structural optimization of the perforated GDL and the wave-like gas channels can guide future designs of fuel cells with high current densities.
杨家培, 马骁, 雷体蔓, 罗开红, 帅石金. 燃料电池扩散层与流道中液态水传输数值模拟与协同优化[J]. 清华大学学报（自然科学版）, 2019, 59(7): 580-586.
YANG Jiapei, MA Xiao, LEI Timan, LUO Kai H., SHUAI Shijin. Numerical simulations for optimizing the liquid water transport in the gas diffusion layer and gas channels of a PEMFC. Journal of Tsinghua University(Science and Technology), 2019, 59(7): 580-586.
 JIAO K, LI X G. Water transport in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells[J]. Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, 2011, 37(3):221-291.  KUO J K, CHEN C K. A novel Nylon-6-S316L fiber compound material for injection molded PEM fuel cell bipolar plates[J]. Journal of Power Sources, 2006, 162(1):207-214.  KUO J K, CHEN C K. Evaluating the enhanced performance of a novel wave-like form gas flow channel in the PEMFC using the field synergy principle[J]. Journal of Power Sources, 2006, 162(2):1122-1129.  KUO J K, CHEN C K. The effects of buoyancy on the performance of a PEM fuel cell with a wave-like gas flow channel design by numerical investigation[J]. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 2007, 50(21-22):4166-4179.  KUO J K, YEN T H, CHEN C K. Three-dimensional numerical analysis of PEM fuel cells with straight and wave-like gas flow fields channels[J]. Journal of Power Sources, 2008, 177(1):96-103.  KUO J K, YEN T S, CHEN C K. Improvement of performance of gas flow channel in PEM fuel cells[J]. Energy Conversion and Management, 2008, 49(10):2776-2787.  BYUN S J, WANG Z H, SON J, et al. Experimental study on improvement of performance by wave form cathode channels in a PEM fuel cell[J]. Energies, 2018, 11(2):319-319.  LI W K, ZHANG Q L, WANG C, et al. Experimental and numerical analysis of a three-dimensional flow field for PEMFCs[J]. Applied Energy, 2017, 195:278-288.  KIM J, LUO G, WANG C Y. Modeling two-phase flow in three-dimensional complex flow-fields of proton exchange membrane fuel cells[J]. Journal of Power Sources, 2017, 365:419-429.  KONNO N, MIZUNO S, NAKAJI H, et al. Development of compact and high-performance fuel cell stack[J]. SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains, 2015, 4(1):123-129.  GERTEISEN D, HEILMANN T, ZIEGLER C. Enhancing liquid water transport by laser perforation of a GDL in a PEM fuel cell[J]. Journal of Power Sources, 2008, 177(2):348-354.  WANG X K, CHEN S T, FAN Z H, et al. Laser-perforated gas diffusion layer for promoting liquid water transport in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell[J]. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 2017, 42(50):29995-30003.  FANG W Z, TANG Y Q, CHEN L, et al. Influences of the perforation on effective transport properties of gas diffusion layers[J]. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 2018, 126:243-255.  LI Q, LUO K H, KANG Q J, et al. Lattice Boltzmann methods for multiphase flow and phase-change heat transfer[J]. Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, 2016, 52:62-105.  SHAH A A, LUO K H, RALPH T R, et al. Recent trends and developments in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell modelling[J]. Electrochimica Acta, 2011, 56(11):3731-3757.  LI Q, LUO K H, LI X J. Lattice Boltzmann modeling of multiphase flows at large density ratio with an improved pseudopotential model[J]. Physical Review E, 2013, 87(5):053301.  GUO Z L, SHU C. Lattice Boltzmann method and its applications in engineering[M]. Toh Tuck Link, Singapore:World Scientific Publishing, 2013.  KRüGER T, KUSUMAATMAJA H, KUZMIN A, et al. The lattice Boltzmann method:Principles and practice[M]. Cham:Springer, 2017.  LEI T M, MENG X H, GUO Z L. Pore-scale study on reactive mixing of miscible solutions with viscous fingering in porous media[J]. Computers & Fluids, 2017, 155:146-160.  SHAN X W, CHEN H D. Lattice Boltzmann model for simulating flows with multiple phases and components[J]. Physical Review E, 1993, 47(3):1815-1819.  SHAN X W, CHEN H D. Simulation of nonideal gases and liquid-gas phase transitions by the lattice Boltzmann equation[J]. Physical Review E, 1994, 49(4):2941-2948.  LI Q, LUO K H, KANG Q J, et al. Contact angles in the pseudopotential lattice Boltzmann modeling of wetting[J]. Physical Review E, 2014, 90(5-1):053301.  YUAN P, SCHAEFER L. Equations of state in a lattice Boltzmann model[J]. Physics of Fluids, 2006, 18(4):042101.  COLOSQUI C E, FALCUCCI G, UBERTINI S, et al. Mesoscopic simulation of non-ideal fluids with self-tuning of the equation of state[J]. Soft Matter, 2012, 8(14):3798-3809.  LI Q, LUO K H. Thermodynamic consistency of the pseudopotential lattice Boltzmann model for simulating liquid-vapor flows[J]. Applied Thermal Engineering, 2014, 72(1):56-61.  DULLIEN F A. Porous media:Fluid transport and pore structure[M]. New York:Academic Press, 1979.