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清华大学学报(自然科学版)  2015, Vol. 55 Issue (1): 50-55    
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施工粉尘健康损害量化评价
李小冬(),苏舒,黄天健
Health damage assessment model for construction dust
Xiaodong LI(),Shu SU,Tianjian HUANG
Department of Construction Management,Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
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摘要 

为了完善建筑工程健康损害评价体系,提升施工人员职业健康水平,该文基于健康风险评价法和健康损害量化评价,建立施工粉尘健康损害评价框架。针对不同施工阶段不同工种进行粉尘损害评价,并用社会意愿支付法货币化损害结果。结合实际工程,将评价模型运用于某住宅项目主体结构施工阶段,得到各工种的粉尘健康损害值,并进行对比分析。结果表明: 评价模型可以用于施工粉尘的健康损害评价; 不同工种的粉尘健康损害存在明显差异; 在主体结构阶段,木工受到的粉尘污染最为严重。

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关键词 环境影响评价健康损害量化评价施工粉尘    
Abstract

Construction dust is one of the most significant occupational health threats for field workers. Thus, the impact of dust on human health must be accurately evaluated to improve building health impact assessments and occupational health management. A health risk evaluation system and building health impact assessment system were used to develop a health damage assessment model to evaluate the effects of dust pollution from various construction activities at different stages and to monetize the evaluation results. A typical residential building in Beijing is used as a case sample with major activities at the main structure construction stage as evaluated objectives to illustrate the evaluation steps and demonstrate the model's application and operation. The health effect analysis among worker groups shows obvious differences in the dust pollution among various construction activities, with carpenters suffering the most health damage from dust during the main structure construction stage.

Key wordsenvironmental impact assessment    health damage    quantitative assessment    construction dust
收稿日期: 2014-05-29      出版日期: 2015-05-15
基金资助:国家自然科学基金资助项目(51078200, 51378297)
引用本文:   
李小冬,苏舒,黄天健. 施工粉尘健康损害量化评价[J]. 清华大学学报(自然科学版), 2015, 55(1): 50-55.
Xiaodong LI,Shu SU,Tianjian HUANG. Health damage assessment model for construction dust. Journal of Tsinghua University(Science and Technology), 2015, 55(1): 50-55.
链接本文:  
http://jst.tsinghuajournals.com/CN/  或          http://jst.tsinghuajournals.com/CN/Y2015/V55/I1/50
  粉尘健康损害评价框架
健康损害类型 Q W L/a L/a
管理人员 施工人员
死亡 0.13 1.00 L0 50.6 42.2
慢性阻塞性肺部疾病 0.16 0.15 10 10 10
心血管疾病 0.16 0.24 L0-5 45.6 37.2
脑血管疾病 0.20 0.20 L0-5 45.6 37.2
急性呼吸道感染 0.35 0.08 0.04 0.04 0.04
  各健康损害类型的参数值
工种编号 工种人群 施工活动区域 粉尘种类 C ADD R WTP
mg·m-3 mg·(kg·d)-1 10-7 104
A 管理人员 办公区 矽尘 0.74 0.04 0.98 0.75
B 楼面作业人员 楼面作业区 矽尘 0.47 0.12 3.11 2.45
C 钢筋加工人员 钢筋加工区 矽尘 1.54 0.39 9.73 2.91
D 水泥搅拌工 水泥搅拌区 水泥尘 2.13 0.54 3.34 1.67
E 木工 木工棚 木粉尘 9.65 2.40 20.00 5.80
  各类工种粉尘健康损害
  不同工种健康损害总值对比
  各工种每人每天健康损害值对比
  不同损害类型粉尘健康损害值对比
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