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清华大学学报(自然科学版)  2015, Vol. 55 Issue (1): 74-79    
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基于生命周期分析的中国城镇住宅物化环境影响评价
刘毅(),何小赛
Embodied environmental impact assessments of urban residential buildings in China based on life cycle analyses
Yi LIU(),Xiaosai HE
School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
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摘要 

中国城镇住宅在建筑材料的生产、运输和施工过程中带来严重的环境影响,该文综合运用生命周期评价和情景分析方法,基于eBalance数据库平台,研究了中国城镇住宅的物化环境影响。结果表明: 2010年中国城镇住宅的物化环境影响约占中国15.5%、 15.2%、 39.2%、 4.1%、 15.9%和17.5%的能源消耗、用水量、化学需氧量、氨氮、二氧化硫和氮氧化物排放量,且主要来自建筑材料的生产阶段,尤其是钢材和水泥的生产,二者之和约占全部建筑材料生产阶段环境影响的70%, 其中钢材占55%。因此,从环境保护的视角考虑中国城镇住宅发展的调控具有重要意义。

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关键词 城镇住宅建筑材料生命周期评价(LCA)eBalance数据库    
Abstract

Building material production, transportation, and building construction of urban residential buildings all impact the environment in China. The eBalance software was used to calculate the embodied environmental impact of urban residential buildings in China using the life cycle assessment (LCA) method and scenario analyses. The results show that the embodied environmental impact of urban residential buildings in China accounted for 15.5% of the national total energy use, 15.2% of the water use, 39.2% of the COD emissions, 4.1% of the NH3-N emissions, 15.9% of the SO2 emissions, and 17.5% of the NOx emissions in 2010. The impacts were mainly due to the manufacturing of the building materials, especially the steel and cement which accounted for 70% of all the buildings materials with steel itself being 55%. Therefore, it is vital for regulating the urban residential buildings based on the perspective of environmental protection.

Key wordsurban residential buildings    building material    life cycle assessment (LCA)    eBalance database
收稿日期: 2012-12-18      出版日期: 2015-05-15
基金资助:中国环境保护部环保公益性行业科研专项经费资助项目 (201209043)
引用本文:   
刘毅,何小赛. 基于生命周期分析的中国城镇住宅物化环境影响评价[J]. 清华大学学报(自然科学版), 2015, 55(1): 74-79.
Yi LIU,Xiaosai HE. Embodied environmental impact assessments of urban residential buildings in China based on life cycle analyses. Journal of Tsinghua University(Science and Technology), 2015, 55(1): 74-79.
链接本文:  
http://jst.tsinghuajournals.com/CN/  或          http://jst.tsinghuajournals.com/CN/Y2015/V55/I1/74
住宅结构 所占比例 /%
砖混 18.7
框架、框剪 49.0
抗震墙 25.4
钢结构 1.3
其他结构 5.6
  标准化的中国城镇住宅结构体系分布情况
材料 住宅结构
砖混 框架和
框剪
抗震墙 钢结构 其它结构
水泥 16.34 24.02 24.29 13.40 12.30
钢材 2.38 6.36 6.94 7.54 3.30
玻璃 0.22 0.35 0.28 0.33 0.22
铝材 0.10 0.27 0.18 0.11 0.10
建筑陶瓷 1.27 1.95 2.40 2.25 1.27
粘土砖 47.71 2.82 1.24 0 0
  不同结构住宅单位建筑面积主要原材料消耗量(t·100 m-2)
住宅建
设阶段
能耗 用水量 COD NH3-N SO2 NOx
万tce 亿t 万t 万t 万t 万t
建材生
产阶段
46 881.9 169.9 163.0 0.9 244.6 251.1
建材运
输阶段
1 560.1 0.6 7.4 0.2 52.5 4.7
住宅施
工阶段
1 935.3 50.1
  2010年城镇住宅发展物化环境影响情况
资源环境要素类别 能耗/(万tce) 用水量/(亿t) COD/(万t) NH3-N/(万t) SO2/(万t) NOx/(万t)
城镇住宅物化环境影响 50 377.3 220.5 170.4 1.1 297.2 255.8
全国总体环境影响 324 939.21 1 447.32 434.83 27.33 1 864.43 1 465.63
百分比/% 15.5 15.2 39.2 4.1 15.9 17.5
  2010年中国城镇住宅物化环境影响占全国总体环境影响比例
住宅
结构
能耗 用水量 COD NH3-N SO2 NOx
tce t kg kg kg kg
砖混 8.5 28.4 17.7 0.1 54.4 48.9
框架、框剪 12.4 47.2 43.4 0.3 63.5 66.4
抗震墙 13.2 53.7 47.4 0.3 67.8 69.7
钢结构 12.1 53.3 50.8 0.3 65.3 59.2
其它结构 6.5 29.1 22.9 0.1 33.7 35.0
  单位住宅建筑面积(每百平方米)物化环境影响
  主要建筑原材料生产过程环境影响
情景 能耗 用水量 COD NH3-N SO2 NOx
万tce 亿t 万t 万t 万t 万t
情景一 111 089.9 486.3 375.6 2.5 564.0 655.3
情景二 63 108.7 276.7 215.4 1.4 319.8 369.9
情景三 59 309.7 269.0 194.8 1.3 301.3 356.1
  2020年城镇住宅发展物化环境影响
情景 水泥 钢材 玻璃
情景一 181 503.0 46 560.4 2 494.3
情景二 102 360.5 26 813.2 1 419.3
情景三 102 087.8 23 569.4 1 402.9
情景 铝材 建筑陶瓷 粘土砖
情景一 1 691.9 15 801.9 88 139.1
情景二 960.5 9 011.2 45 249.3
情景三 951.6 8 887.9 49 574.5
  2020年城镇住宅建设物料消耗情况 万t
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